The quality of tile setup largely contributes towards the aspect of the tiled surface. Therefore, a setup completed with care and professionalism will enhance your floors and walls.
You will find here the main steps to follow in order to complete a quality setup, enhancing the tiled surface.
1. Controlling the surface to be tiled (measurements, squaring, wall verticality, ground level, materials…);
2. Optimising layout plan, and preventing shear effects to better hide their appearance on the time;
3. Preparing mortar or mortar-glue and proceeding to layout of the tiles.Product description
Preparation of mortar, following dosage recommendations for the given project, and homogeneous mix.
Humidification of the surface to be tiled in order to prevent fast settling of the mortar.
Application of the adequate mortar thickness; the mix must be barely humid and mustn’t let water outcrop at the surface
Installing tiles (immersed in water for a given amount of time beforehand) on the mortar bed, using braces to realize perfectly aligned joints; tiles are then laid down in place.
Drenching abundantly the tiled surface. Sufficient amount of water must enter the joints in between the tiles, thus penetrating the mortar bed and ensuring it settles.
Energetically and regularly beating the ground (use of special beaters). Through this operation, we obtain a perfectly planar surface. Beating is considered well done when after lifting a tile, a substantive amount of mortar adheres to the tile.
Filling of joints with the joint mortar chosen beforehand. This operation must be performed when the mortar bed has partially settled, i.e. approximately three days after installation.
Joint pointing, using a rubber or plastic spatula.
Cleaning the floor with wet thrum, taking care to wipe off all joint mortar residue, which is easiest to do while still fresh.
Humidification of the floor to protect it against rapid evaporation of water. It’s recommended not to walk on the tiled surface for at least 3-4 days. However, in case of necessity, lay wooden planks on the floor. Outside floors must be protected from the wend, direct sunlight and rain in the first days that follow the installation.
Final cleaning using water. Persistent traces of cement, stains and others can be removed using an appropriately diluted acid solution, or with detergent sold in specialized stores (after verifying the tile’s resistance to acid solutions beforehand).
Preparation of tiled surface: this surface must be perfectly planar, presenting no crack or shearing, and clean; the sections that will be taken off must be removed with caution. Certain surfaces (covered with smoothing paste) require the application of a primer surface beforehand when using the cement based glue-mortar.
Application of the adhesive and installation of tiles: the adhesive mixture is applied on the screed with a toothed spatula, which allows application of the adhesive with a consistent thickness and marking of furrows to bound the region of contact between the adhesive surface and the tiles. When the tile is installed and beat on the adhesive surface, the crushed adhesive spreads onto the bottom of the tile until it adheres perfectly. This can and must be verified by attempting to lift the tile immediately after installation. The adhesive mix must therefore be applied multiple times on smaller surfaces, and its adhesiveness must be verified regularly. For floor coatings subject to substantial mechanical or thermal stresses, it is recommended to use a double-adhesive layout. This technique involves applying a layer of adhesive mix on the bottom and on the supporting surface of the tile.
Jointing: this operation is performed using a rubber spatula in order to obtain a complete, regular and compact filling of joints between tiles.
Cleaning: rapid preliminary cleaning using a wet sponge. Then a more thorough turning using materials or detergents compatible with the chemical and mechanical resistance characteristics of the tiles and adhesives.
Protecting the surface, particularly if more installation work is expected.
Control the flatness, plumb and squaring of walls.
Carefully clean the wall.
Apply adhesive paste with a toothed spatula provided for this purpose, using same instructions and care described in layout of floor coatings.
Install tiles one by one by applying pressure. As a general rule of thumb, tiles are installed from the bottom up; if installation doesn’t allow starting from a perfectly horizontal base, a temporary adjustable inlay can replace the first row of tiles. In the case of areas particularly solicited (external coatings), it is customary to use a double-adhesive layout (a layer of adhesive paste on the wall and an additional layer of adhesive paste on the back of the tile).
In case of a joint installation, control the alignment of each row and column of tiles every 2 - 3m; control regularly the flatness of tiled surface.
In case of a large-joint installation, use braces.
Once the adhesive has settled, remove the inlay which served as starting base and place the tiles modified beforehand if need be. As previously observed for this row of tile serving as connection between floor and wall, it is customary to use special parts (heeled plinths) in order to conceal the peripheral dilation joint without compromising its structural function.
Fill in the joints with pointing paste, and a rubber spatula provided for this purpose.
Cleaning using a wet sponge. For a more thorough clean, use materials or detergents compatible with the chemical and mechanical resistance characteristics of the tiles and adhesives.
In case of a large-joint installation, use braces.